A recurrent theme in computational science (and elsewhere) is the need to combine machine-readable information (which in the following I will call “facts” for simplicity) with a narrative for the benefit of human readers. The most obvious situation is a scientific publication, which is essentially a narrative explaining the context and motivation for a study, the work that was undertaken, the results that were observed, and conclusions drawn from these results. For a scientific study that made use of computation (which is almost all of today’s research work), the narrative refers to various computational facts, in particular machine-readable input data, program code, and computed results.
Like all information with a complex structure, scientific knowledge evolves over time. New ideas turn into validated models, and are ultimately integrated into a coherent body of knowledge defined by the concensus of a scientific community. In this essay, I explore how this process is affected by the ever increasing use of computers in scientific research. More precisely, I look at “digital scientific knowledge”, by which I mean scientific knowledge that is processed using computers. This includes both software and digital datasets. For simplicity, I will concentrate on software, but much of the reasoning applies to datasets as well, if only because the precise meaning of non-trivial datasets is often defined by the software that treats them.